Corn, small grains, and rice
Cool and wet weather
Associated with gastroenteritis, intestinal hemorrhages (Petrie et al., 1977; Mirocha et al., 1976), and death (Hsu et al., 1972 and Kosuri et al., 1970).
Guidelines have not been established, but avoiding levels above 100 ppb may be reasonable.
a Level indicating possible favorable conditions for mycotoxins and probable need for further testing of all feeds or the TMR. Pending further tests, negative samples should be considered at concern levels in the presence of moderate symptoms and at harmful levels with marked symptoms. Limit amounts fed if moderate performance effects are present. Discontinue use at least temporarily if pronounced performance effects or acute clinical symptoms are present. Closely observe animals and continue checking for other possible causes.
b Potentially Harmful - Mycotoxins at these levels indicate probably involvement in performance effects or acute clinical symptoms. Discontinue feeding at least temporarily in the presence of either type of symptoms. Observe animals closely in the absence of symptoms and do further testing of all feeds or the TMR.
e TRDM = total ration dry matter.
Adams, Richard S., Kenneth B. Kephart, Virginia A. Ishler, Lawrence J. Hutchinson, and Gregory W. Roth. "Mold and Mycotoxin Problems in Livestock Feeding." Dairy Cattle Nutrition (Penn State Extension). Penn State Extension, n.d. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.
Petrie, L., J. Robb, and A.F. Stewart. 1977. The identification of T-2 toxin and its association with a hemorrhagic syndrom in cattle. Vet. Re. 101:326-326.
Mirocha, C.J., S.V. Pathre, and C.M. Christensen. 1976. Zearalenone. Pp. 345-364. In: J.V. Rodricks, C.W. Hessletine, and M.A. Mehlman. (Eds.)
Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health. Pathotox. Publ., Park Forest, IL.
Hsu, I.C., C.B. Smalley, F.M. Strong, and W.E. Ribelin. 1972. Identificaiton of T-2 toxin in moldy corn associated with a lethal toxicosis in dairy cattle. Appl. Microbiol. 24:684-690.
Kosuri, N.R., M.D. Grave, S.G. Yates, W.H. Tallent, J.J. Ellis, I.A. Wolff, and R.E. Nichols. 1970. Response of cattle to mycotoxins of Fusarium tricinctum isolated from corn and fescue. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 157:938-940.