Corn, Corn Silage, Peanuts, and Cottonseed
Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Parasiticus, and Aspergillus Nomius (Kurtzman, 1987)
Heat and drought stress pre-harvest. Heat and humidity post-harvest.
Primary target is the liver resulting in abnormal blood clotting, development of jaundice, hemorrhaging, and reductions of the immune response. Aflatoxin has also been shown to affect rumen function in vitro and in vivo by decreasing cellulose digestion, volatile fatty acid formation, and proteolysis. (Fehr and Delage, 1970; Dvorak et al., 1977)
Acute: Inappetance, lethargy, ataxia, rough hair coat, and pale/enlarged fatty livers.
Chronic: reduced feed efficiency and milk production, jaundice, and decreased appetite. Also lowers resistance to diseases and interferes with vaccine-induced immunity. (Diekman and Green, 1992)
|All animal species||20 ppb||All feed (exceptions below)|
Breeding cattle, breeding swine, mature poultry
|Finishing swine (>100 lbs.)||200 ppb||Corn|
|Finishing beef cattle||300 ppb||Corn and peanut products|
|Beef cattle, swine or poultry||300 ppb||Cottonseed meal|
|Immature animals||20 ppb||Animal feeds and ingredients, excluding cottonseed meal|
|Dairy animals, animals not listed above, or unknown use||20 ppb||Animal feeds and ingredients|
Kurtzman, C.P., B.W. Horn, and C.W. Hesseltine. 1987. Aspergillus nomius, a new aflatoxin-producing species related to Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus tamarii. Anton v. Leeuwenhoek 53:147-158.
Fehr, P.M. and J. Delage. 1970. Effect de l'aflatoxine sur les fermentation du rumen. Can. Nutr. Diet. 5:59-61.
Diekman, D.A., and M.L. Green. 1992. Mycotoxins and reproduction in domestic livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1615-1627.
"Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations." CPG Sec. 683.100 Action Levels for Aflatoxins in Animal Feeds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 28 Oct. 1994. Web. 19 Sept. 2013.